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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology
Here is complete list of chapters. Select the chapter which you want to view or download.
- Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
- Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Chapter 3 Human Reproduction
- Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
- Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
- Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Chapter 7 Evolution
- Chapter 8 Human Health and Disease
- Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare
- Chapter 11 Biotechnology:Principles And Processes
- Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications
- Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
- Chapter 14 Ecosystem
- Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
- Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
Biology Textbook Chapters Details
Biology plays an integral role in industrialization alongside other sectors of the economy. Biology is a topic or subject, which equips students with skills and concepts that are useful in solving life’s day today issues. The study of Biology aims to provide the learner with the understanding by which to control or adjust the environment to your benefit of family, an individual or community.
Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
This is the first chapter of the book. It explains about Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction- asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Chapter 2 deals with topics like Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events -development of endosperm and embryo. Some more topics are covered; development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter 3 Human Reproduction
In the third chapter of class 12 biology tells about Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
In this chapter you will study about Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control -need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Chapter 7 Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Chapter 8 Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,
Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.
Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Chapter 14 Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions are great resources for the students.
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